Guide Le travail alchimique ou la quête de la perfection: 221 (Izvor) (French Edition)

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The word can be the perfect instrument to persuade, to induce behaviour chosen and sustained in the register of both positive and negative emotions. When mastering the art of selecting the right words for the desired mental states, we discover in ourselves a power we could not even imagine to possess. Unfortunately, as the psychotherapist Anthony Robbins noticed, most of us choose their words unconsciously, and their impact on our fellows can be but unpredictable. Pragmatically speaking, the word is the most powerful instrument we can make use of in order to reach our purposes.

This is exactly why it is imperatively necessary to The one who has the information does not necessarily have the power, but the one who has and controls the force of language is the real beneficiary of power. Blaga, Lucian, Trilogia valorilor, vol.

King Eds. Another approach of this part of speech can also be realized from the stylistic point of view. From this respect, the interjections are used to give colour to the text and to confer that touch of expressivity toit. The interjections are those linguistic units with expressive value which are used both in the oral style and in written, in poems and prose.

The majority of writers and poets make use of interjections as a specific stylistic means that contributes to the realization of the specificity of the poet s style, of his preferences and the esthetic taste of his epoch. In the literary work highlighted in this paper, one can notice a classification of interjections and onomatopoeia from the frequency point of view and from the derivational point of view.

Key words: interjection, onomatopoeia, stylistic value, expressivity, orality. The research from the stylistic point of view of a part of speech as the interjection implies more advantages. First of all, skimming through the entire text under observation, in this case the work Amintiri din copilarie, there were extracted on lexical working papers all the encountered interjections, whenever they appear, thus establishing the frequency of their usage in the text under study, the pursuit and the identification of the different touches of meanings, their distribution from the formal, semantic, contextual viewpoints.

In Creanga s writing, the expressivity is rendered by numerous words and phrases from popular origin, which belong to the Moldavian idiom, therefore many of them are regionalisms which make that the language used by the author in Amintiri din copilarie be unique. Besides these elements that ensure the expressive character of his work, there are also the exclamations, the ethic dative, as well as the interjections and onomatopoeia which are found in plenty with Creanga and which confer orality to the style.

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By frequently using this part of speech, the author marks his affective participation, so that the language gets affective accents. The onomatopoeia abound and form numerous imitative verbs, the expressions specific to the oral language are plenty, the typical sayings and the exclamations occupy an important place, all these elements constitute means of expressing orality and affectivity.

Therefore, Creanga s style is an original style, as it has been previously mentioned, it is a unique style.

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The author s great work imposes by the refinement of his style, by the excellent exposure of the oral language in prose with the help of some complex linguistic items such as the interjections and onomatopoeia, by creating a special style, that of the ordinary man, who expresses himself clearly, simply and expressively. There is no page written by Creanga where there is at least an interjection or an onomatopoeia that gives expressiveness to the text.

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This The following examples are relevant:,, Ei,ei! These are considered fixed combinations made up of different parts of speech. The secondary interjection Doamne! It is worth remarking the fact that this interjection with a flectional character is used with Creanga together with the interjection ia and not ie as usual, having two usages Firstly, they are used to present the persons, objects or events from the situational context.

This constitutes the inventory of all the interjections and onomatopoeia encountered in Amintiri din copilarie by Ion Creanga, parts of speech that can be classified from other points of view, too. Another type of interjections encountered in this work is that of interjections whose affective content is missing, being used with a specific aim. The interjection amin 5 appearances that is used in the religious language as an ending phrase, and aleluia 2 apparances represents a praising refrain in the anthems.

It is important to mention the fact that, starting from these imitative words, Creanga realized a huge range of derivatives, especially verbal derivatives but also nominal and adjectival ones. Among all the writers, Creanga is the one who uses the greatest number of onomatopoeia and their derivatives, but not excessively, for the sake of colouring his work from the stylistic point of view.

He uses them accurately and reasonably in order to create expressiveness to the text and to establish the specificity of his literary style. These derivatives are encountered in his work in different personal or impersonal moods and in different expressions, as follows. These derivatives from this onomatopoeia are not mentioned in the dictionary, the author has formed them for the sake of colouring the language of his work and of rendering the idea of annoyance. Other examples of verbal derivatives formed from onomatopoeia which represent sounds uttered by birds or animals can be mentioned further on.

All these forms are encountered in this work in the following examples: All these verbs and nouns are adrressed to human beings and have figurative meanings. As one can see above that the process of derivation related to interjections and onomatopoeia is extremely important because it makes Creanga s style an original and expressive one from the stylistic point of view.

Another means of enriching the vocabulary is also called repetition. In this case, one can talk about the repetition of interjections and onomatopoeia in Creanga s work. The onomatopoeia found in his work are not numerous and they are used to intensify the respective emotional state or action. In conclusion, all these aspects mentioned above constitute stylistic means of rendering expressiveness to a text and of rendering the idea of orality and of original style.

Academiei, vol. IV, Creanga, I. The aim of this paper is to investigate the slogan as a particular type of persuasive discourse and it is focused on the pragmatic framework of this type of discourse and the relationship between speaker and his audience. The specific context shapes the slogan which uses various rhetorical devices and figures of speech.

Slogans represent an extreme form of political discourse, which is used not only in the political publicity, but also in more elaborated discourse treating a political issue, where it functions as a conclusion. As a part of the political publicity, the electoral message shares a series of features with the publicity discourse and these characteristics derive from the two main functions they have to fulfill: to inform and to persuade the audience, regarded as a consumer virtual buyer or elector. Just as the early commercials did not mean anything else but transmitting simple messages regarding the existence, the price and utility of a product, the contemporary political publicity may be considered an important means of informing the citizens about who the candidates are and what they offer from a political point of view.

McNAIR, More than simply informing, the publicity of a product tends to offer it a particular significance that gives it individuality and convince the receiver of the superiority of that product. In a similar way, the political publicity shows the public a product that is endowed with a value of change or of a sign. Nowadays, slogan, that represents the linguistic part of political publicity, is an interesting issue for researchers in various domains and the electoral message may be approached from many points of view.

In communication and public relations studies, the publicity of a political issue is a product and its success depends on the political marketing strategies McNAIR, From a psychological point of view, slogan, as a type of persuasive message, raises a real interest in the role of linguistic force in marketing, publicity, the Bar, so models of communication based on keywords, on semantic cores of subliminal action are elaborated. Also semiotics represents an instrument of investigating publicity, in general, and political publicity, in particular, aiming to explain how it functions and what is its importance.

A semiotical approach notices that the publicity utterance is a particular discourse type, characterized by the syncretism of semiotic codes, by a dense intertextuality Because the linguistic element is placed in the center of the publicity message, together with the image, this allows an approach from a rhetorical and pragmatic point of view.

Thus, the persuasive strategies determine a certain configuration of publicity discourse and political publicity message, and the approach is relevant only if that speech act is considered from a pragmatic point of view. Political publicity discourse is performed as a unidirectional, non-mutual communication, from a speaker who holds a superior position because he has got the information, towards a passive hearer.

The producer of a political publicity discourse may appear explicitly in the utterance, encoded as personal pronoun 1 st person pl. Due to the particular goal of this type of discourse, the distance between the position of the speaker and the position of the hearer tends to be shortened or even cancelled. This personal pronoun in the plural makes the hearer understand that the speaker and the hearer belong to the same group, so that he might be induced the same opinion.

However, the speaker s person remains out of the performed discourse in most situations. In order to achieve the first goal, its efficiency creating a favorable premise for the persuasion act, one can use extra-linguistic means: images that appear together with the text orally communicated or written , which are interwoven. Captatio benevolentiae is achieved also by using some wordings that suggest the receiver is involved in a profitable partnership relation. As a form of political communication, publicity has a major shortcoming.

Disregarding the agreement with the transmitted message, the public understand that they deal with a political content of that message, reflecting the interests, the ideas, the values of the person who promotes it McNAIR, Situated on this position, the receiver reader, hearer or TV viewer tends to move away from the transmitted message, to resist and reject it. By means of persuasive strategies, the speaker tries to The spontaneous character of political publicity message results from using the colloquial variant of the language, from exploiting several methods of oral communication which are recurrent in this type of message.

Addressing in the 2 nd person singular, in a familiar manner: Alege dreapta!

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  • The predictable character of publicity discourse is pointed out by the grammatical and lexical recurrences, as well as by the repetition and insistence figures of speech. In a psycholinguistic approach, the existence of some repetitive structures presents advantages in receiving and memorization. The grammatical recurrence appears because there is a preference for typical structures in slogan, such as that with a verb in the imperative mood singular or plural and a direct object: Alege schimbarea! The repetition figures appear frequently in the publicity political discourse because their stereotype character, sometimes associated to symetrical structures achieves the effect of persuasion by insistence and makes the memorization easier.

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    The repetition is always a means of materializing the fatic function of publicity language, assuring a connection between the two poles of communication. Repetition at the phonological level rarely appears as rhyme: Ei cu ei, noi cu voi! Lexical repetition appears in more various forms, its typology in slogan being more restrained than in the publicity discourse in general. The hyperbole, the stylistic superlative are figures of exaggeration that feature in the publicity discourse, but in the slogan, in the political publicity message are to be avoided, because of the specific product that is promoted.

    They prefer presenting this as a representative of a large group of individuals who constitute the target- public, so this is not the perfect choice, but a person who deserves the receiver s trust just for he is a member of the same group, one of them. Creativity, innovation, distinctive features of any type of persuasive discourse oppose to the predictable character of publicity discourse.

    To the publicity discourse in general and to the political publicity message, the element of surprise has a tripled finality: to capture the receiver s attention, to involve him in decoding the significance of the utterance and thus to facilitate memorization, making him adopt a certain attitude or behavior.

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    The innovating unpredictable character of any type of persuasive discourse is manifest in the electoral message, which is possible to get from the receiver a reaction opposite to that aimed by the speaker, a reaction of over-saturation because of stereotypes and repetition. The receiver s attention may be captured and his interest may be maintained also by leaving the patterns behind.

    Creativity can become evident in various methods, placed at different levels of the utterance and in different degrees according to the receiver. The target-public of the slogan is not homogenous, but when the speaker focuses on a certain segment of this public, he can design the expectations and general coordinates of this receiver by using specific methods in other domains political marketing , so that he should be able to introduce the innovating element in the electoral message in the most efficient degree.

    This constraint imposed The iconic part of the publicity discourse, which consists of a static or dynamic image, is one of the coordinates of this type of discourse and in the writespreading political message it is represented by the symbol of the party or by the picture of the candidate. The predictability at this level can be diminished by using the caligrams. They offer the text an iconic dimension by modifying one or even more letters in a word, turning them into a design drawing with a value of a sign.

    By this innovation at the graphic level, representing an intimate connection between the iconic component and the linguistic one, the message succeeds in capturing the receiver s attention, in directly imposing him a EL signifying the product , the personal pronoun third person singular used with an apparent anaphoric value. The lack of decoding possibilities, as there is no previous utterance containing a noun to be substituted, represent a reason for the receiver to look for this him and to find its referent.

    The interference between various discourse types is a technique which rarely appears in the electoral message, maybe because it has a parody aspect which contrasts with the seriousness of such a situation, with the solemnity that has to characterize a candidate. Leaving the patterns and stereotype structures away could be achieved by using the metaphor as a figure of ambiguity, but just apparently, because metaphor in publicity discourse functions as an ornament and has an argumentative role.

    In publicity discourse promoting a political product, the speaker resorts metaphor in order to obtain the receiver s agreement, having him cover the distance between the significant that is present in the utterance and the term behind the metaphorical one. This action of the receiver is controlled by the speaker as the latter uses an explicit metaphor, a stereotyped one, frequent in the everyday language, so that the decoding process should be predictable.

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    The process of decoding this metaphor depends both on the collective mentality and on the social context, as the same word was used with a different meaning in a spot produced by Reagan s staff, spread during the election campaign in USA. The use of polysemous words which create a surprise effect on the receiver in some contexts proves the role of ambiguity: Alege dreapta! Beyond the first reading of the utterance, the polysemy of the word dreapta may induce the idea of loyalty, The receiver may be leaded towards such a reading of the text, on the ground that the political publicity message is defined by polemic.

    Although the polemical feature is manifest in the publicity discourse in general, it is more obvious in the political message. There is a polemic character in every slogan and it may be implicite or explicit, coded as antithesis. As it is transmitted by a political group, the intention of slogan is to promote an opinion which necessarily opposes the point of view of the other groups.